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优化:How to optimize for the Pentium family of microprocessors 怎样优化Pentium系列处理器代码 English


日期: 2000-06-12 14:00 | 联系我 | 关注我: SteemIT, Twitter, Google+

Contents

Introduction

Literature

Calling assembly functions from high level language

Debugging and verifying

Memory model

Alignment

Cache

First time versus repeated execution

Address generation interlock (PPlain and PMMX)

Pairing integer instructions (PPlain and PMMX)

Perfect pairing

Imperfect pairing

Splitting complex instructions into simpler ones (PPlain and PMMX)

Prefixes (PPlain and PMMX)

Overview of PPro, PII and PIII pipeline

Instruction decoding (PPro, PII and PIII)

Instruction fetch (PPro, PII and PIII)

Register renaming (PPro, PII and PIII)

Eliminating dependencies

Register read stalls

Out of order execution (PPro, PII and PIII)

Retirement (PPro, PII and PIII)

Partial stalls (PPro, PII and PIII)

Partial register stalls

Partial flags stalls

Flags stalls after shifts and rotates

Partial memory stalls

Dependency chains (PPro, PII and PIII)

Searching for bottlenecks (PPro, PII and PIII)

Jumps and branches (all processors)

Branch prediction in PPlain

Branch prediction in PMMX, PPro, PII and PIII

Avoiding jumps (all processors)

Avoiding conditional jumps by using flags (all processors)

Replacing conditional jumps by conditional moves (PPro, PII and PIII)

Reducing code size (all processors)

Scheduling floating point code (PPlain and PMMX)

Loop optimization (all processors)

Loops in PPlain and PMMX

Loops in PPro, PII and PIII

Problematic Instructions

XCHG (all processors)

Rotates through carry (all processors)

String instructions (all processors)

Bit test (all processors)

Integer multiplication (all processors)

WAIT instruction (all processors)

FCOM + FSTSW AX (all processors)

FPREM (all processors)

FRNDINT (all processors)

FSCALE and exponential function (all processors)

FPTAN (all processors)

FSQRT (PIII)

MOV [MEM], ACCUM (PPlain and PMMX)

TEST instruction (PPlain and PMMX)

Bit scan (PPlain and PMMX)

FLDCW (PPro, PII and PIII)

Special topics

LEA instruction (all processors)

Division (all processors)

Freeing floating point registers (all processors)

Transitions between floating point and MMX instructions PMMX, PII and PIII)

Converting from floating point to integer (All processors)

Using integer instructions to do floating point operations (All processors)

Using floating point instructions to do integer operations (PPlain and PMMX)

Moving blocks of data (All processors)

Self-modifying code (All processors)

Detecting processor type (All processors)

List of instruction timings for PPlain and PMMX

Integer instructions

Floating point instructions

MMX instructions (PMMX)

List of instruction timings and micro-op breakdown for PPro, PII and PIII

Integer instructions

Floating point instructions

MMX instructions (PII and PIII)

XMM instructions (PIII)

Testing speed

Comparison of the different microprocessors

以上仅为目录.

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